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Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs


Report Cover of Global Potential of EE S&L Program Published in November 2008 by CLASP. This work was supported by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and the Institute of Energy Economics, Japan.

This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L).

A consensus has emerged among the world’s scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: “what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency” and “how much impact can these policies have”? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale.

The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration with other strategies under consideration.

Table of Contents 

  1. Executive Summary
  2. Introduction
    • Project Scope and Approach
    • Literature Review
    • Regional Breakdown, Sectors and Covered End-uses
    • Methodology Overview
      • Module 1 – Activity Forecast Methodology
      • Module 2 - Unit Energy Savings Potential
      • Module 3 - Stock Accounting
  3. Module 1 – Activity Forecasting Methodology
    • Residential Sector Activity Forecasting
      • Diffusion Model for Major Appliance
      • Diffusion Model for Other End-uses: Lighting and Space Heating
      • Regional Diffusion Trends
    • Commercial Sector End-use Activity
      • Floor Space Growth Model
      • Equipment Penetration Model
  4. Module 2 – Unit Energy Savings Potential
    • Residential Sector Baseline End-use Energy Demand and High Efficiency Scenarios
      • Lightin
      • Refrigeration
      • Air Conditioning
      • Washing Machine
      • Fans
      • Televisions
      • Stand-by Power
      • Ovens
      • Water Heating
      • Space Heating
      • Residential Sector Summary
    • Commercial End-Use Intensities and High Efficiency Scenarios
      • Lighting
      • Space Cooling
      • Ventilation
      • Refrigeration
      • Office Equipment
      • Space Heating
      • Water Heating
      • Commercial Sector Summary
  5. Module 3 - Stock Accounting
  6. Savings Potential Results and Conclusions
    • Demand Forecast
    • Potential Energy Savings
    • Potential Emissions Reductions
    • Sensitivities and Uncertainties
  7. References
  8. Appendices


 Authors: Michael A. McNeil, Virginie E. Letschert, Stephane de la Rue du Can

 Information from: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory